By Marie Eileen Francois
Pairing the examine of family intake with an in depth research of the increase of non-public and public pawnbroking offers an unique context for knowing the function of small enterprise in daily life. Marie Eileen Francois weighs colonial reforms, liberal laws, and social revolution when it comes to their impression on families and pawning businesses.
Based on proof from pawnshop inventories, censuses, laws, petitions, literature, and newspapers, A tradition of daily Credit portrays families, small companies, and govt entities as intersecting arenas in a single fabric global, an international strapped for money all through many of the century and became the other way up in the course of the Mexican Revolution.
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Extra info for A Culture of Everyday Credit: Housekeeping, Pawnbroking, and Governance in Mexico City, 1750-1920 (Engendering Latin America)
Some, especially elite widows, enjoyed the freedom of their new status and experienced productive and prosperous twilight years. ’’∏Ω Women headed 33 percent of the 183 households in the sample, with widows making up 70 percent of the female household heads (see appendix 3, table E). 1. This demographic picture of so many Creole women as the household authority but without an o≈cial occupation is part of the context in which the viceroys shaped regulatory policy for the grocery and pawning trades.
To support a family of ﬁve in the 1790s, a household would have needed to collectively earn at least ﬁve reales daily. An unmarried woman working at the royal cigarette factory or as a live-in maid could have survived on her wages, but a widow with even one child would have had a harder time. ≤∑ Workers’ incomes would have been further taxed when dress codes for the tobacco-factory workers were extended by Viceroy Azanza to guilds, to religious brotherhoods, and during civic and religious processions.
While establishing the Monte de Piedad to cushion or prevent the fall down the economic ladder by white subjects, colonial o≈cials nonetheless blamed those sliding down for their economic demise. ∂Ω By using the pawnshop, Creole families living o√ bureaucratic or private-sector incomes could keep their high standard of living and still avoid ﬁnancial ruin, whether or not they conspicuously consumed luxury imports. Displaying wealth, eating wheat bread, and securing legitimation certiﬁcates were all strategies that, like pawning, were used in the formation and maintenance of Creole identities and in the defense of honor and status in the taxing late colonial period.