By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This booklet provides the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken by way of fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the manufactured from broad learn via the authors and contributors in box tools and crew research classes on the collage of California, Berkeley, and involves ten chapters protecting the segmental phonology, tone approach, morphology, and sentence constitution, via appendices at the Nzadi humans and historical past and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound adjustments. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a couple of fish species. sooner than this paintings, Nzadi had no longer even been pointed out within the literature, and at present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the examine of Nzadi is its massive grammatical simplification, leading to constructions fairly assorted from these of canonical Bantu languages. even though Nzadi has misplaced lots of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable type prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun type contract in genitive structures. different parts of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause buildings, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet complete grammar presents vast assurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic houses that may be of capability curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people drawn to this sector of the DRC, but in addition to typologists, basic linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
Not with a Cw or Cy sequence or on a long vowel. ) L and HL, on the other hand, can appear with any syllable shape. g. *dé- ‘eat’, *kú- ‘to die’, *pá- ‘give’. The H of CV syllables is thus in complementary distribution with the HL of other syllable shapes. 49] 53 L-L L-HL L-H o-C(G)V(V)(C) o-C(G)V(V)(C) o-CV L L -L L H -L L H -L As seen, verb roots have either /H/ or /L/ tone. In the infinitive a -L suffixal tone is assigned to the stem. When the verb root is L, the suffixal -L has no overt realization.
Since among the likely candidates both /t/ and /l/ also occur finally, this leaves /d/, which does not occur as a coda other than in matç@nd ‘thanks’. Other than this complementary distribution there is, however, no reason to assume that final [r] is a realization of underlying /d/. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. Basic tonal contrasts General tone rules Morphological tone rules Intonation Basic Tonal Contrasts Like most Bantu languages, Nzadi contrasts two tone levels, H(igh) and L(ow). These tones may in turn combine to produce HL (falling), LH (rising) and LHL (rising-falling) contours.
17] /ndé â tûm òNkàán kó okáàr/ ! /ndé â sûm òNkàán sâm é okáàr/ ! ókáàr ‘he has bought a book for the woman’ Tone 43 The (non-)application of absorption before V- and N- prefixes requires some discussion. 18] /akáàr iwa/ /akç&N íná / ! akáár íwa akçN íná ‘nine women’ ‘four spears’ The example ‘four spears’ is completely regular: LH + H ! L-H. In the case of ‘nine women’, the input has a HL stem followed by a L prefix. We therefore expect absorption to produce akáár iwa, with the i- prefix remaining L.