By Susanne Klaus
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Insulin stimulates both leptin secretion and production by rat white adipose tissue. Endocrinology 1997; 138(10):4463-4472. 13. Donato R. Functional roles of S-100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999; 1450(3):191-231. 14. Cinti S, Cigolini M, Morroni M et al. S-100 protein in white preadipocytes: An immunoelectronmicroscopic study. Anat Rec 1989; 224(4):466-472. 15. Cancello R, Zingaretti MC, Sarzani R et al. Leptin and UCP1 genes are reciprocally regulated in brown adipose tissue.
In this area at the embryonal day 15 (E15) only mesenchymal tissue and very large capillaries are visible by light microscopy. Studying this area by electron microscope in the perinatal period, we observed all the morphological developmental stages of brown adipocytes. The first step of differentiation (adipoblast stage 1) is represented by blast-like cells with numerous pre-typical mitochondria (Fig. 10). These cells progressively increase the number of mitochondria whose morphology approach step by step that of typical brown mitochondria (typical mitochondria expressing UCP1 are visible at E19 in brown adipocytes).
2,5,68 Pref-1 is a EGF repeat-containing transmembrane protein that belongs to the EGF-repeat family. , the transmembrane protein Notch active via its ligands Delta and Serrate. 95 The adenosine receptor A2 subtype,96 the prostacyclin IP receptor and the PGE2 receptor (EP4 subtype),92 all positively coupled to adenylate cyclase, are present in preadipocytes and then become expressed at low levels, if any, in adipocytes, consistent with the importance of the PKA pathway in preadipocytes to trigger terminal differentiation of preadipocytes.