By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
This quantity is the 3rd of a suite of 7 regarding photovoltaics. sun cell-related applied sciences lined right here comprise: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer identical crystalline silicon; and different complicated silicon sunlight cellphone constructions and processes.
Semiconductors and Semimetals has exclusive itself throughout the cautious collection of recognized authors, editors, and individuals. initially well known because the "Willardson and Beer" sequence, it has succeeded in publishing quite a few landmark volumes and chapters. The sequence publishes well timed, hugely proper volumes meant for long term impression and reflecting the really interdisciplinary nature of the sphere. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals were and may remain of significant curiosity to physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and equipment engineers in academia, clinical laboratories and sleek industry.
- Written and edited via across the world well known experts
- Relevant to a large readership: physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and gadget engineers in academia, clinical laboratories and smooth industry
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Additional info for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3,
2003), and as the technique is putting much less pressure on the wafer than screen-printing, it is especially well suited for thinner or more fragile wafers. 5 Paste development The contact formation between emitter and Ag paste is highly dependent on paste formulation and properties of the Si surface. The goal is to establish good contact with low contact resistivity on emitters with low P surface concentration in combination with high conductivity of the Ag finger. This would enable low series resistance (high FF) and low recombination losses (good surface passivation with high Voc and jsc).
Therefore, often several machines of the same type work in parallel to increase throughput and minimize the risk of bottlenecks. 1. Wafer washing, texturization, and cleaning After crystallization, mono-Si and mc-Si wafers are sliced out of the Si ingot using wire saws, containing slurry with abrasives for cutting into the Si (Dold, 2014). This leaves, apart from contaminants, saw damage on both sides of the Si wafer with a depth in the range of up to 10 μm (depending on sawing conditions). After wafer washing, this saw damage has to be removed, as the disturbed region of the crystal (cracks, dislocations) is of poor electronic quality.
8 The etching reaction takes place in two steps, an oxidation 8 Note that the maximum depth of saw damage can be up to around 10 μm, but as predominantly the damaged areas are attacked, less overall removal of Si is needed. 21 State-of-the-Art Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 3Si + 4HNO3 ! 27) followed by etching of the SiO2 3SiO2 + 18HF ! 28) Afterward, the thin porous Si layer at the surface is etched off in (cold) KOH. The remaining reflectivity is significantly higher than for random pyramids, therefore it is not used for mono-Si (Fig.