By Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers, Bernd J. Fischer
''... a pioneering attempt in English-language stories on Albania.'' -- Nicholas C. Pano
Albanian historical past is permeated through myths and legendary narratives that regularly serve political reasons, from the depiction of the mythical ''founder of the nation,'' Skanderbeg, to the exploits of the KLA within the contemporary Kosovo warfare. The essays in Albanian Identities, via a multinational, multidisciplinary group of students and non-academic experts, deconstruct customary political or historiographical myths approximately Albania's earlier and current, bringing to mild the ways that Albanian myths have served to justify and direct violence, buttress political energy, and foster inner harmony. Albanian Identities demonstrates the ability of myths to at the present time, as they underpin political and social methods in crisis-ridden, post-totalitarian Albania.
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Extra resources for Albanian Identities: Myth and History
They’d say. “Someone who directly proﬁts off of someone else’s sex work. The person who takes a cut of the prostitute’s money and controls them. Those exploitators! ” We would then explain that this is usually not how most prostitution works in Rio de Janeiro. The programa, or trick, is almost sacrosanct in most sex work venues in town. The money that others make off of prostitution typically does not come directly from a sex worker’s labor, but from economic manipulations and the sale of goods and services surrounding her labor (most particularly the renting of the private, anonymous spaces where sex acts take place).
We would then explain that this is usually not how most prostitution works in Rio de Janeiro. The programa, or trick, is almost sacrosanct in most sex work venues in town. The money that others make off of prostitution typically does not come directly from a sex worker’s labor, but from economic manipulations and the sale of goods and services surrounding her labor (most particularly the renting of the private, anonymous spaces where sex acts take place). There are exceptions to this rule, but it generally holds.
These are in places other than the Penal Code and are essentially unchanged from the era of the quasi-fascist Getúlio Vargas dictatorship of the 1940s. As historian Silvana Jeha has recently pointed out to us, one of the most important of these is Article 59 of the Criminal Contraventions Act, which makes “vagrancy” (vadiagem) a crime, deﬁning this as not having a legal job while being of sound mind and body. 18 Jeha’s recent work in the police ﬁles of the State of Rio de 17 The authors would like to thank Judge Rubens Casara for this insight.